中国的广播爱好者

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     很高兴能通过DXing.info向你们介绍中国DXER的活动情况。(我要说明的是,中国活跃着很多HAM,他们的DX活动不在本文的介绍范畴之内。)

     在经济改革持续进行了二十多年之后,中国的广播事业得到了长足的发展。一个明显的标志是,几乎每一个城市都拥有自己的FM电台。在我生活的福州(它是福建省的省会),FM电台有很多家。除了本地的FM台外。大多数城市还转播CNR的节目。尽管如此,由于有线电视、互联网的发展速度更快,现在关注广播的人反而比从前少了。

     在中国的城市里。FM广播的听众主要是司机和年轻的学生。前者通过广播来了解路况,后者通过广播来了解及时而免费的娱乐信息。因此,交通频道与音乐频道往往最受欢迎。电台节目的商业色彩越来越浓。晚间的黄金时段里,各种广告取代了枯燥的政治说教。电台为了获得更多的广告费,常常播出一些诸如性病治疗的粗俗广告。越来越多的听众对此表示反感。电台管理者也因此而陷入了哈姆雷特式的困境。

     中波是省一级电台的主要传播工具。与FM节目相比,它们的商业色彩会淡一些。一些境外的传教者现在也通过中波来向中国听众宣扬天主教。值得一提的是,这些宗教电台似乎没有被列入政府的干扰计划。而VOA发射的中波信号就没有这样幸运。在我居住的城市里,还可以不费力地接收到来自台湾的中波广播。因为福建省与台湾之间只隔着一条海峡。在福州的一些高处,还能稳定地收听到来自台北的FM广播。

     短波收音机在中国卖得很好。与互联网比起来,短波广播是了解外国的廉价工具。学生们则通过短波收音机来学习英语。在大学里,考试大纲要求高年级学生能听懂VOA与BBC的广播。

     由于劳动力便宜,许多国际著名的收音机厂商现在都把中国当作它们的生产基地。包括GRUNDIG、PHILIPS、SONY和SANGEAN。GRUNDIG的一些机型就是由中国的收音机厂设计的。中国的DXER数量不多,因此国内市场上的收音机主要是卖给普通的消费者。高性能的接收机很难在市场上买到。SONY ICF-SW7600GR的价格相当于一个中学教师整个月的工资。TECSUN HAM-2000(GRUNDIG SATELLIT-800的中国型号)的价格相当于一个普通城市家庭整个月的收入。除了少数顶尖的DXER外,大多数爱好者只能使用廉价的便携式收音机来收听信号。除了设备缺乏以外,中国的DXER很难买到WRTH之类的参考书。他们只能通过互联网来了解国外的DX信息。

     互联网是联系中国DXER的重要工具。有好几个网站是DXER们常去的地方。比如王雷先生的《广播爱好者》(http://swl.126.com)与著名的《广播论坛》(http://www.chat001.com/forum/leowood/index.html)。和我的网站一样,它们都使用中文。

     中国的省级电台比较少提供QSL卡片。一个重要的原因是在中国,很少有人知道什么是QSL卡。中国的DXER只能写收听报告给外国的电台,请求他们的确认。由于语言障碍与缺少指导,大多数DXER只懂得写信给提供中文服务的电台。由于中国政府经常干扰外国的对华广播,并对印刷品邮件进行检查,和外国电台的联络也并不总是非常顺利。

     由于种种障碍,DX活动在中国开展得并不够深入。大多数人不知道国外的DXER在干什么。我想,他们会很乐意获得你们在技术与信息上的帮助。

     最后再来说说我自己。我算不上一个真正的DXER,我只是喜欢在业余时用便携机收听来自远方的微弱信号(已经有不少DXER买了台机并且架设了室外天线)。最早的收听是在1990年,那时侯我仅是一个对国外电台充满好奇心的初中生。2002年春天,我访问了王雷先生的网站。王先生的网站在中国DXER中享有盛名。我从这里了解了很多有关广播收听与DX的知识,认识了很多朋友。我们常常在网站的论坛上讨论问题,偶尔也发生友好的争执。我要感谢dxswl,是他在论坛为我们介绍了DXing.info。Miller Liu是另一位受到普遍尊敬的DXER,他来自台湾,有着丰富的DX经验。得益于互联网,我们还可以同其他国家的DXER联系。我无法准确地告诉您在中国究竟有多少DXER,因为我们目前还没有专门的俱乐部,而越来越多的短波爱好者正在转变为DXER。不过有一点是显而易见的,那就是女性很少。

     我的爱好没有受到任何人的干涉。大多数中国人懂得尊重别人的爱好。我还在本地遇到了几位有着相同爱好的朋友。他们的年龄、身份各异,当然,这一切不妨碍他们从收音机中得到乐趣。因为相同的爱好是友谊的桥梁。

     好在中国是一个正在发生巨大改变的国家。也许在不远的将来。你们会听到更多关于中国DX活动的报告。

I am glad to introduce the situation of DXERs in China to you through Dxing,info. I want to point out that there are many HAM in China, but my essay does not include the introduction of their DX activities.

After over twenty years of economic reform, China's broadcasting facilities have improved greatly. One apparent evidence is that almost every city has its FM radio stations. For example, in Fuzhou, capital of Fujian Province,also my living place, I know there are a lot of FM radio stations. Besides FM local programs, most cities have relay radio broadcast programs of CNR as well.

In some Chinese cities, the audience of FM programs are mainly drivers and young students. The former get information about the traffic condition, while the latter obtain entertainment information timely and freely from them.Therefore, transportation and music channels are always popular. The commercial pours into radio programs. During the golden period in the evening, various ads replace political preach. The radio stations often broadcast vulgar ads like treatment for venereal disease to gain more profits, which make many more listeners disgusted. The radio stations thus fall into trouble like Hamlet.

Medium wave is the main means for broadcasting in radio stations in a province. Compared with FM, there are less commercial in it. Certain foreign missionaries use it to preach Catholicism to the Chinese people. What is worth mentioning is that these religious radio stations seem not to be in the government's interference-plan list. Nevertheless, the medium wave programs sent by VOA are not so lucky. In the city I live in, I can easily receive medium wave broadcast from Taiwan, for there is only a Strait between Fujian Province and Taiwan. In some higher places of Fuzhou, you can listen to Taipei's FM programs steadily.

Shortwave radios are most popular in China. It is a cheaper tool to know about foreign countries. Students use it to learn English. In universities, senior students are required to comprehend the English narration broadcasted by VOA or BBC.

Since labor force is inexpensive many famous international radio manufactories make China as their production base, including GRUNDIG、PHILIPS、SONY and SANGEAN. Some models of GRUNDIG are designed by the engineers in China. Because the number of DXER is small,the radios in domestic market are usually sold to common consumers. It is difficult to perchase high quality receivers in the market.

The price of SONY ICF-SW7600GR amounts to the monthly salary of a high school teacher. TECSUN HAM-2000(GRUNDIG SATELLIT-800 Chinese type)costs a month's income of a n average Chinese family.Except for a few top DXERs, the majority buffs can only use cheap portable radios to receive signals. The equipment is in shortage.What is worse, it is hard to buy some reference books such as WRTH. In order to get news about foreign DX, they have to surf on line.

Internet is a vital tool for China's DXERs. Some web sites are their haunts, for instance, Mr.Wang Lei's "Radio Fans" (http://swl.126.com) and the famous "Radio Forum" (http://www.chat001.com/forum/leowood/index.html). They are Chinese websites like mine (http://zuji.51.net/bcl).

China's provincial radio stations seldom provide QSL cards. An important factor is that few people know what they are. China's DXERs can only write listening reports for foreign stations, requesting their reassurance, Because of language problem and lack of guidance, most DXERs have to write letters to stations offering Chinese service. Chinese government frequently interferes foreign broadcast to China, and checks with printed mails, so the contact with foreign stations is not always smoothly.

Due to such obstacles, DX activities in China are not fully developed. A large number of people don not know what foreign DXERs are doing. In my opinion, they are eager to get help in technique and information from you.

Finally, I would like to say that I am not a real DXER. However, I am fond of searching for weak signals from distant areas with a portable receiver in my leisure time. (Quite a few DXERs own tabletop receivers and they themselves erect outdoor antennas. ) In 1990, when I was still a junior high school student, I was curious about the foreign broadcasting stations. In the spring of 2002, I visited Mr.Wang Lei's website. It is reputable among Chinese DXERs. There I get plenty of knowledge in broadcasting and DX as well as make friends with many DXERs. We often discuss issues in the forum. Occasionally, we have friendly argumentation. Thanks to Mr. Xiaoli Qiao, otherwise we will not know about DXing.info. It's he who introduces DXing.info in the forum to us. Another expert who is widely respected is Mr.Miller Liu from Taiwan. He is experienced in DX. Benefiting from the internet, we are able to keep in touch with DXERs in other countries . I am afraid that I can't tell you the exact number of DXERs in China, for we have not had any special clubs up to now. Meanwhile, more and more short wave listeners transfer to being DXERs. Yet obviously, there are very few female fans in this field.

Nobody interferes my hobby. Most Chinese know how to respect other people's interests. I encounter some friends sharing my hobby even in the local place. Although we do differ in ages and identity, it will not affect us to get pleasure from electric wave, because common interest is the bridge of friendship.

Fortunately, great changes are taking place in China. Perhaps in the near future, you may learn more reports about China's DX activities. (June 26, 2002)