在北极星光下(Under the Northstar)

作者:Esa Ronkainen

     来自芬兰的Esa Ronkainen是一位经验丰富的广播爱好者,也是《广播之友》的热心通讯员。有关Esa先生的简介,请看http://zuji.51.net/bcl/dxer/tbbd18.htm

     众所周知,广播爱好者熟悉世界地理和形势。不过,我还是想说说芬兰——关于这个偏远国度的DXing情况。芬兰位于欧洲的西北部,瑞典和俄罗斯之间的芬诺斯坎底亚地区(芬兰、挪威、瑞典、丹麦的总称)。我们和俄罗斯有着长达几千公里的国境线。受中世纪早期教派分立的影响,我们的地理形势也较为复杂。芬兰在文化传统上贴近西欧。著名的英国历史学家阿诺德·汤因比曾向我的导师分析过路德教派拉丁文对芬兰文化影响深远的原因——他的德语学得很好。二战以后,美国对芬兰文化产生了很大的影响。芬兰语和匈牙利语、爱沙尼亚语差不多,同样属于小语种。Literal文化是如此地年轻,圣经新约直到500年前才被翻译成芬兰文。长久以来,它几乎是唯一用芬兰语写成的典籍。19世纪40年代,人们在东部的偏僻村庄里搜集民族叙事诗(芬兰的民族史诗)——我相信你能找到中文译本,它也是世界文学宝藏的一部分。若干年后,我们最伟大的文学天才Aleksis Kivi才用芬兰语创作了大量的小说、戏剧和诗歌。历史上长达400多年的时间里,芬兰都只是瑞典的一部分。从1812年起,我们才获得了高度的自治。十月革命后,芬兰终于获得了独立。有趣的是,赫尔辛基大学直到20世纪30年代仍然在使用瑞典语授课。
It is generally known that bclers are well informed about the geography of the word and it's affairs but I want anyway tell something about my remote homecountry and dxing there. Finland is situated in Northwest Europe,Fennoscandia beetween Sweden and Russia.We have thousand kilometers common border with Russia. Our geopolitical situation has been complicated since the catholic church diveded in the aerly middle age. Finland has always belonged to the western Europe culturally. The famous English historian Arnold Toynbee said to my prefessor: Why the influence of latin of the lutherans is so big in Finland. He ment German language.Well,since the second world war the American influence in our culture is huge.Finnish language belongs to same small language group than Hungarian and Estonian. The literal culture is very young.the new testament was translated 500 years ago.It was the only finnish book long time.1840ies the national epos Kalevala was collected in the remote eastern villages.I believe you find in Chinese.If not translate it soon.it is a part of the world literature. A few years later our greatest literal talent Aleksis Kivi created the basic works of the Finnish novel,drama and lyrics.We had been four hundred years a part of Sweden.1812 Russia occupied Finland and we got a large autonomy. After the october revolution Finland got the independence. An interesting point is the the Helsinki university was Swedishspeakin until 1930ies.

     不好意思,有个电工来了。趁这个机会,让我喝杯咖啡,顺便欣赏芬兰最伟大的作曲家西贝柳斯的作品。我想任何一个音乐家都无法超越他的成就。人们都说西贝柳斯的交响乐听起来像贝多芬的一样棒。可从某种意义上说,他和我们没什么两样。他也喜欢收听广播^_^
Pardon me boys but there was electrician working here. OK. In beetween I took a cup of coffee and listened the greatest Finnish composer forever Jean Sibelius. I think none of us is on his level as musicman .They say his symphonies are like Beethoven. In one sense he anyway was like us.He loved to listen radio.

     1939—1944年间,芬兰一直在和苏联交战。但战争结束后,我们和苏联恢复了友好的关系。无论如何,芬兰是属于西方经济阵营的。20世纪70年代有这么一个笑话,在一次国际会议上,美国总统卡特和苏共总书记勃烈日涅夫问超级计算机:2020年的世界形势会是什么样?先谈到美国,电脑说:“黑人总统,通货膨胀25%,就业率30%”。然后轮到苏联,运算了很长时间之后,电脑说:“Finnish-Chinese border doesn't comment this question”。我们将拭目以待。
1939-1944 there was the war beetween Finland and the Soviet Union. The war ended and we had good relatioship later to the Soviet.We anyway belonged to western economy. There wa sa joke in Finland in 1970ies. In the international conference the American president Carter and generalsecretary Breznev ask the great computer how is the world affairs in 2020.First America.The computer says: the black president,the inflation 25% and the employment 30%. Then the Soviet.After long time the computer says:the Finnish-Chinese border doesn't comment this question. We shall see.

     芬兰的无线电接收活动始于20世纪20年代,由一群业余无线电家发起。不久以后,芬兰广播公司成立了。50年代末电视机也进入了家庭。最初,广播和电视媒体都由国家垄断。如果我没记错,直到80年代才诞生了第一批地方商业调频电台,他们的节目都大同小异——多是上榜的流行音乐,这些商业电台其实并没有多少言论自由。我偏爱芬兰广播公司的一频道——几乎全是古典音乐或其他的艺术作品。现在广播和电视也逐渐数字化了,新的频道和节目也在不断出现。如果你想收听,可以试试21.800千赫,北京时间大约是18:00——20:00。芬兰广播公司将逐渐取消外文节目,或者早已经付诸实施。但不管怎样,你可以尝试向芬兰广播公司索取QSL卡,他们对发射台的效果十分关心。
The radio activities began in Finland 1920ies by the hams.Soon the Finnish Broadcasting company was founded.Televison came in the end of fifties.First the radio and television was the state monopoly. If I remember right in the end of 1980ies became the first coomercial local fm stations. they are many now but their programmes are always the same. Music from the toplists. the commercial radio has not enlargened the freedom of the speech. I prefere the Finnish Broadcating Company channel one:mostly classical music, other arts and commentaries. Radio and television are going digital now.New channels and new programmes. If you want to listen how the Finnish sounds listen to 21.800khz, 18.00-20.00 the Beijing Time. Radio Finland will close down it's foreign language programmes. Maybe it has already done so.Anyway you can ask for QSL from the company which takes care of the transmitters.

Esa Ronkainen
在世界地图(标明了转播台的发射方向)前,Esa和土耳其国际广播电台的主要负责人:Osman Erkan
(英语组)、Engin Asena(德语组)的合影。Infront of the world map(it shows to where transmission is directed) Esa and the chiefs of Radio Turkey International. Osman Erkan from the english programmes and Engin Asena from german programmes.
DXer在波里测试ITT、JRC与AOR生产的接收机,测试结果表明ITT出品的商业接收机拥有最出色的性能。The guys maid tests in Pori with the ITT commercial receiver, JRC and AOR receivers. The test shows ITT was the best.